14 September 2016

Securing Cyberspace: International and Asian Perspectives

Price: Rs. 1295 [Download E-copy]

This edited volume contains the papers presented at the 18th Asian Security Conference at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses held in February 2016. The authors, drawn from government, law enforcement, diplomacy, private sector, armed forces and academia, examine a range of issues central to cybersecurity. The chapters in this volume not only provide an outline of the journey so far, but more importantly, give indicators of future trends in cybersecurity from the vantage point of the respective experts.

Contributions from Asia are particularly highlighted to promote and provoke greater discussion on perspective from within the region on cybersecurity issues.
List of Abbreviations
Securing Cyberspace: A National Security Perspective
Arvind Gupta 
Middle Powers and Cyber-Enabled War: The Imperative of Collective Security
Greg Austin 
The Triad Theory for Strategic Cyberwarfare
Amit Sharma 
Working out the Rules of Global Cyberspace Governance
Alexandra Kulikova 
Defence, Deterrence, and Diplomacy: Foreign Policy Instruments to Increase Future Cybersecurity
Sico van der Meer 

Securing from Cyberthreats: Developing Defence, Deterrence and Norms
A. Vinod Kumar 
Role of Military in Cybersecurity
Liina Areng 
Recalibrating Law Enforcement to Keep Pace with New Technologies and Forms of Crime
Madan M. Oberoi 
Evolving Role of Government in Cybersecurity
Kah-Kin Ho 
Governance Challenges at the Intersection of Space and Cybersecurity
Jana Robinson 
Cybersecurity Threats to Critical Infrastructure: A Case Study of Nuclear Facilities
Caroline Baylon 
Challenges of Cybersecurity: Malware and AS-level Structure
Ted G. Lewis 
Non-State Actors and Cyberspace: An Overview
Sanjeev Relia 
Non-State Actors and Cyberspace: A North African Perspective
Gillane Allam 
Regionalising Cybersecurity Governance in Africa: An Assessment of Responses
Uchenna Jerome Orji 
Challenging Opportunities for the Asia-Pacific’s Digital Economy
Liam Nevill 
Economic Dimensions of National Cybersecurity Strategies in the Asia-Pacific Region: At the Nexus of National Security, Innovation Capability and Commercial Interests
Candice Tran Dai 
International and Regional Responses to Cybersecurity Challenges
Nandkumar Saravade 
A South Asian Regional Cybersecurity Cooperation (SARCC) Forum: Prospects and Challenges
Munish Sharma and Cherian Samuel 
Regional Security Architecture in Asia: Enhancing Transparency and Confidence among Militaries on Cybersecurity
Caitríona Heinl 
The Role of Military in Cyberspace: Case of Republic of China (Taiwan)
Li-Chung Yuan 
Cybersecurity Policy in Japan
Yasuaki Hashimoto 
South Korean Legal Initiatives to Combat Cybercrime and Enhance Digital Economy
Il Seok, Oh 
Global Cybersecurity Environment: Perspectives of the US and China in Comparison
Cuihong Cai 

Alexandra Kulikova is the Global Stakeholder Engagement Manager for Eastern Europe and Central Asia at ICANN, and also acting as PIR Center Consultant (non-staff). Alexandra’s research interests within the program and beyond include national and global internet governance, privacy and data protection online, state and corporate policies on ICT security, international cyber-strategies and policies.

Amit Sharma is currently serving as Additional Director in the Office of the Scientific Advisor of Defence Minister, Defence Research and Development Organization (D.R.D.O.), Ministry of Defence, Government of India. He has worked in the field of Information Security, Information warfare, Strategic Information Dissemination Systems, Net Centric Warfare, C4I2SR systems and Secure and survivable networks.

Arvind Gupta is the Deputy National Security Adviser of India and Secretary in the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS). Previously, he was the Director General of Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). He is a former Indian Foreign Service Officer, and has served in diplomatic missions in Moscow, London and Ankara. He held the Lal Bahadur Shastri Chair on National Security at the IDSA from 2008 to 2011.

A. Vinod Kumar is an Associate Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi and a visiting faculty at the Institute of Foreign Policy Studies (IFPS), University of Calcutta, Kolkata. His areas of expertise include nuclear policy issues, missile defence, foreign policy and strategy. He has written extensively in acclaimed publications like Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, The National Interest, Strategic Analysis, Asia Times and Vayu Aerospace Review, among others.

Caitríona Heinl joined the Centre of Excellence for National Security (CENS) at S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) as a Research Fellow for cybersecurity issues in October 2012. She has published articles in peer-reviewed journals and policy advisory reports on topics that include international and regional cooperation, country case studies, and national security implications of emerging technologies.

Candice Tran Dai is Vice President and Cyberspace Program Manager at Asia Center, France. She has also been working as a consultant in international business development strategy since 2006, advising European companies regarding their market access and international development in China and Southeast Asia. She is focusing on issues relating to knowledge society, national ICT development strategy, as well as political and cybersecurity issues.

Caroline Baylon serves as the director of the cybersecurity research program at the Center for Strategic Decision Research in Paris, France and was previously the lead researcher on cyber security at Chatham House (The Royal Institute of International Affairs) in London, United Kingdom. Her research is focused on critical infrastructure protection, notably on cyber security challenges for nuclear facilities and on cyber security threats to satellites. She is currently carrying out two research projects, one on curbing the proliferation of cyber weapons and another on cyber proxy armies, funded by the UK government.

Cherian Samuel is an Associate Fellow at IDSA. He is an alumnus of Madras Christian College, and of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He has previously worked with India Abroad and was a Research Fellow in the US Studies Program at the Observer Research Foundation. He was co-ordinator of the IDSA Task Force on Cyber Security which published a report on “India’s Cyber Security Challenges” in March 2012.

Cuihong Cai is associate professor of international relations at the Center for American Studies of Fudan University. Prior to the present job, she worked for the Foreign Affairs Office of Fudan University during 1996-2001. She has authored Political Development in the Cyber Age (2015), U.S. National Information Security Strategy (2009) and Internet and International Politics (2003), as well as several dozen of articles and papers on cyber-politics, cyberspace governance, cybersecurity strategy and Sino-US relations.

Gillane Allam is a career diplomat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt. During her service abroad, she has served as a diplomat in the Permanent Missions of Egypt to the UN in New York & Specialized Agencies in Vienna. She has held the posts of Ambassador consecutively to India, Australia, New Zealand & countries of the Pacific. Post retirement, she taught at the Graduate School of The Arab Academy in Cairo, and joined the Egyptian Council for Foreign Affairs (ECFA).

Greg Austin is a Professorial Fellow with the EastWest Institute in New York and a Professor at the Australian Centre for Cyber Security at the University of New South Wales, Canberra, at the Australian Defence Force Academy. He is the author of several highly reviewed books on international security, especially on Asia. His latest book is Cyber Policy in China (Cambridge: policy 2014).

Il Seok, Oh is Senior Researcher at Institute of Legal Studies, Korea University Law School, an expert in Contract, Tort, Oil and Gas Law, and Information Security Law. He has a Ph.D from Korea University and an LLM from the Northwestern University School of Law, Chicago.

Jana Robinson is currently Space Security Program Director at the Prague Security Studies Institute (PSSI). She previously served as Space Policy Officer at the European External Action Service (EEAS) in Brussels. She was also a Space Security Advisor to the Czech Foreign Ministry, seconded to the EEAS. From 2009 to 2013, she worked as Resident Fellow at the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), seconded from the European Space Agency (ESA), leading the Institute’s Space Security Research Programme.

Kah-Kin Ho is Senior Director for public sector at FireEye. Earlier, he was with Cisco for more than 18 years and Headed Strategic Security, where he played a key role in developing and shaping Cisco’s strategic positioning in security that aligns with customer requirements. He also serves in the Advisory group of EUROPOL European Cyber Crime Center (EC3) and teaches Cyber Security Strategy and Policy at ETH Zürich.

Liam Nevill is currently working in the Australian Strategic Policy Institute’s International Cyber Policy Centre, researching and writing on international and domestic cyber policy issues. Prior to joining ASPI Liam worked at the Australian Department of Defence on strategic and international defence policy issues. He has previously worked in policy roles in the Department of Health and Ageing, and the Northern Territory Treasury.

Li-Chung Yuan is currently teaching at the Graduate Institute of Strategic Studies in the Republic of China (ROC) National Defense University (NDU) as an Assistant Professor with the rank of Colonel. With 22 years of military service, he has served as teaching assistant and squadron commander in the Air Force Academy, translation officer at the Institute of National Strategic Studies (a defense think tank), staff officer at the Intelligence Division (J-2) of the Ministry of National Defense, Air Combat Command, and the Combined Logistics Command.

Liina Areng assumed the duties of Head of International Relations at Estonian Information System Authority in March 2014. Prior to her current position, she coordinated NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence’s (NATO CCD COE) international affairs. She holds an honorary title of NATO CCD COE Ambassador.

Madan M. Oberoi is an Indian Police Service officer of 1992 batch. He is presently on deputation as Director of Cyber Innovation and Outreach Directorate in the INTERPOL Global complex for innovation (IGCI), Singapore. He supervises two sub-directorates including ‘Strategy & Outreach’ sub-directorate and ‘Research & Innovation’ sub-directorate.

Munish Sharma is an Associate Fellow with the Cybersecurity Project at IDSA. He is an engineering graduate and holds masters in Geopolitics and International Relations. Prior to masters he worked as software engineer for four years with Accenture. His research areas are Cybersecurity, Critical Information Infrastructure Protection, Space Security, and Defence Technologies.

Nandkumar Saravade served as the Chief Executive Officer of the Data Security Council of India. He is a former officer of the Indian Police Service, who branched off to specialise in cyber security issues. Before taking voluntary retirement from IPS in 2008, he worked with National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) as Director, Cyber Security and Compliance, on a threeyear deputation. Post voluntary retirement, he led the security and crime prevention verticals at ICICI Bank and CitiBank, apart from being an advisor to Ernst & Young.

Sanjeev Relia was commissioned into the Corps of Signals of the Indian Army in 1986. He attended the Defence Services Staff College Course in Wellington. Presently serving as a Colonel in the army, he has been associated with modernization of IT and communication infrastructure and issues related to Cyber Security. During his study leave, he was associated with the research project on “Cyber Warfare: It’s Implications on National Security” at The United Services Institution of India.

Sico van der Meer is a Research Fellow at the Netherlands Institute of International Affairs ‘Clingendael’. His research is focused on non-conventional weapons like Weapons of Mass Destruction and cyber weapons from a strategic policy perspective. Before joining the Clingendael Institute he worked as a journalist and as a Fellow of a think tank on civil-military relations.

Ted G. Lewis was Professor of Computer Science and Executive Director of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. He has previously held a variety of positions within IEEE Computer Science and the industry as CEO of Daimler Chrysler Research and Technology NA and Senior Vice President of Eastman Kodak. Ted has advised the governments of Taiwan, Egypt, Mexico, and Italy in the areas of economic development and technology development parks and authored over 30 books and 100 papers on computing, critical infrastructure and complexity.

Uchenna Jerome Orji is an Attorney admitted to the Nigerian Bar as a Barrister and Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Nigeria. He is pursuing a Ph.D in law at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Nigeria, with a specialization in telecommunications regulation. He is also a Research Associate at the African Center for Cyber Law and Cybercrime Prevention (ACCP) located within the United Nations, African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders in Kampala, Uganda.

Yasuaki Hashimoto is the Head of Government and Law Division at The National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS) and Lecturer (International Law) at Komazawa University, Japan. He also serves on the Committee on National Space Policy of Japan as ad hoc member. His areas of expertise are international law, space law, cyber law, international law of armed conflict and international humanitarian law. He has a career spanning over 25 years and has published articles in the space law field after becoming an International Institute of Space Law (IISL) member in 1987.

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