Showing posts with label Important Papers. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Important Papers. Show all posts

5 July 2019

Gaining Competitive Advantage in the Gray Zone

PDF file 2.4 MB 

The United States is entering a period of intensifying strategic competition with several rivals, most notably Russia and China. U.S. officials expect this competition to be played out primarily below the threshold of armed conflict, in what is sometimes termed the gray zone between peace and war. In this report, the authors examine how the United States might respond to Russian and Chinese efforts to seek strategic advantage through coercive actions in the gray zone, including military, diplomatic, informational, and economic tactics. The United States is ill prepared and poorly organized to compete in this space, yet the authors' findings suggest that the United States can begin to treat the ongoing gray zone competition as an opportunity more than a risk. Moreover, leaders in Europe and Asia view Russian and Chinese gray zone aggression as a meaningful threat and are receptive to U.S. assistance in mitigating it. In this report, the authors use insights from their extensive field research in affected countries, as well as general research into the literature on the gray zone phenomenon, to sketch out the elements of a strategic response to the gray zone challenge and develop a menu of response options for U.S. officials to consider.

3 July 2019

Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism


Thanks to the generous support and cooperation from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the CSIS Project on Prosperity and Development releases this new essay anthology, Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism. As policymakers confront the ongoing challenge of radicalization and violent extremism, it is important that stakeholders and counterterrorism strategists recognize the critical role for development and other non-kinetic approaches to counter violent extremism (CVE). To that end, this new anthology takes a multidimensional role mapping out the role of soft power institutions in enabling lasting peace, prosperity, and global security.

This report is made possible through the generous support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

2 July 2019

Gaining Competitive Advantage in the Gray Zone

PDF file 2.4 MB 

The United States is entering a period of intensifying strategic competition with several rivals, most notably Russia and China. U.S. officials expect this competition to be played out primarily below the threshold of armed conflict, in what is sometimes termed the gray zone between peace and war. In this report, the authors examine how the United States might respond to Russian and Chinese efforts to seek strategic advantage through coercive actions in the gray zone, including military, diplomatic, informational, and economic tactics. The United States is ill prepared and poorly organized to compete in this space, yet the authors' findings suggest that the United States can begin to treat the ongoing gray zone competition as an opportunity more than a risk. Moreover, leaders in Europe and Asia view Russian and Chinese gray zone aggression as a meaningful threat and are receptive to U.S. assistance in mitigating it. In this report, the authors use insights from their extensive field research in affected countries, as well as general research into the literature on the gray zone phenomenon, to sketch out the elements of a strategic response to the gray zone challenge and develop a menu of response options for U.S. officials to consider.

29 June 2019

Report on Time Allocation and Work Perceptions of Teachers


200 teachers from 39 government and municipal schools in Delhi, were surveyed between December 2017 and April 2018 to unpack their work and role related perceptions and to map the time spent by them on various school activities. Teachers were found to be juggling multiple activities in settings with low capacity and resources. The situation is exacerbated due to planning and management issues. This in turn is affecting the quality and time spent on academic tasks, as well as teacher morale. Download PDF

26 June 2019

Sustaining Multilateralism in a Multipolar World


While international multilateralism is under strain, it is vital for France and Germany to defend it, since it is the most appropriate system for preserving their interests – particularly in terms of welfare, security, prosperity and environmental protection. Against this backdrop, three political fields offer opportunities for joint initiatives: trade, conventional arms control and climate change.

25 June 2019

Making America Great Again versus Made in China


The trade conflict between the United States and China is a severe threat to the world economy. While the debate over the effectiveness of tariffs is at a steady boil in the United States, the EU is opposed to tariffs as a means for dealing with China. Although serious issues with China must be addressed – such as dumping and subsidization – tariffs will make the United States neither more competitive nor secure.


24 June 2019

China's Changing Role in the Middle East

BY JONATHAN FULTON

A quiet shift in geopolitics has been taking place, with East Asia and the Middle East drawing closer together. Energy trade explains part of this, as Japan, South Korea, and China are consistently among the largest export markets for Middle East oil and gas. In the case of China, the relationships have moved beyond economic interests to incorporate strategic concerns as well. The Atlantic Council's Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East report has released a new report by Dr. Jonathan Fulton on this subject: "China's Changing Role in the Middle East." The report analyzes China’s presence in the Middle East, examines the response of Middle Eastern states, and explores how US-China competition plays out in the region: are their interests compatible, creating opportunities for cooperation, or do they diverge to the point that competition is the most likely outcome?

23 June 2019

Radicalization: the origins and limits of a contested concept


‘Radicalization’ has a twisted history. At every turn, it gained a new meaning without shedding the existing one. In the beginning, ‘radicalization’ meant Muslims espousing an anti-Western, fundamentalist stance, with Iran as the epicentre of a global Muslim insurgency. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, it started to be loosely used as a synonym of ‘anger’. A number of Muslims were said to become increasingly angry as a result of a wide variety of ‘root causes’. But almost simultaneously, it became intertwined with ‘recruitment’ by foreign extremists, who tried to persuade these angry individuals to join foreign war zones.

In 2004, another layer was added when ‘self- radicalization’ became the buzzword, since it appeared that one could also develop into a terrorist through kinship and friendship networks. That year, the EU officially embraced the concept. Myriad models and studies were financed to try to clarify the long, step- by-step process through which an individual radicalized into a terrorist.

But, in a new twist, by 2015–2016 it became obvious that radicalization didn’t require a long process after all.

THE DAWN OF ROBOT SURVEILLANCE


Imagine a surveillance camera in a typical convenience store in the 1980s. That camera was big and expensive, and connected by a wire running through the wall to a VCR sitting in a back room. There have been significant advances in camera technology in the ensuing decades — in resolution, digitization, storage, and wireless transmission — and cameras have become cheaper and far more prevalent. Still, for all those advances, the social implications of being recorded have not changed: when we walk into a store, we generally expect that the presence of cameras won’t affect us. We expect that our movements will be recorded, and we might feel self-conscious if we notice a camera, especially if we’re doing anything that we feel might attract attention. But unless something dramatic occurs, we generally understand that the videos in which we appear are unlikely to be scrutinized or monitored. All that is about to change. 

Today’s capture-and-store video systems are starting to be augmented with active monitoring technology known variously as “video analytics,” “intelligent video analytics,” or “video content analysis.” The goal of this technology is to allow computers not just to record but also to understand the objects and actions that a camera is capturing. This can be used to alert the authorities when something or someone deemed “suspicious” is detected, or to collect detailed information about video subjects for security or marketing purposes. Behind all the dumb video camera “eyes” that record us will increasingly lie ever-smarter “brains” that will be monitoring us. As we will see, technologists are working on teaching computers to do that monitoring in remarkable ways across a broad variety of dimensions. 

Ideas for Modernizing the Rules-based International Order


Chatham House experts examine how the international system can adapt to today’s challenges – from responding to reduced confidence in multilateralism to coordinating action on climate change.

In this 2019 edition of Chatham House Expert Perspectives – our annual survey of risks and opportunities in global affairs – our researchers identify areas where the current sets of rules, institutions and mechanisms for peaceful international cooperation are falling short.

In a series of 19 essays, we present ideas for reforming and modernizing global governance in critical domains, examining both whether the concept of a ‘rules-based international order’ makes sense in contemporary contexts and what needs to be done to make it fit for purpose.

The essays are available as a PDF, or each one can be read online below. Download PDF

DATA PROTECTION: Federal Agencies Need to Strengthen Online Identity Verification Processes


The federal government relies on commercial credit agencies to help verify the identities of people who apply for benefits online—such as asking personal questions from credit files. However, the 2017 Equifax data breach has raised questions about this practice.

There are alternative methods to verify identity, such as comparing a photo of an ID card captured on a cell phone to documentation on file, but federal agencies have had issues with implementing them. For instance, not all applicants have cell phones.

We recommended that the National Institute of Standards and Technology provide guidance on implementing these alternative methods.

Last Call for SATCOM Security


ICIT CERTIFIED: In this paper, the researchers at IOActive, an ICIT Fellow Circle Member, offer three real-world scenarios involving serious vulnerabilities that affect the aviation, maritime, and military industries. It has been reviewed by ICIT researchers and is certified as an educational document. ICIT encourages stakeholders to read this paper and distribute it widely to share its contents.

This research comprehensively details three real-world scenarios involving serious vulnerabilities that affect the aviation, maritime, and military industries. The vulnerabilities include backdoors, insecure protocols, and network misconfigurations. This white paper elaborates the approach and technical details of these vulnerabilities, which could allow remote attackers, originated from the Internet, to take control of:

• Airborne SATCOM equipment on in-flight commercial aircrafts
• Earth Stations on Vessels, including Antennas
• Earth Stations used by the US Military in conflict zones

Hundreds of commercial airplanes from airlines such as Southwest, Norwegian, and Icelandair were found to be affected by these issues. Today, it is still possible to find vessels that are exposed to the Internet, leaving them vulnerable to malicious attacks. Also, we are providing the evidences to demonstrate that Internet of Things (IoT) malware was found actively trying to exploit exposed aircraft, as well as vessels that were already infected.

22 June 2019

New and Critical Materials

PDF file 1 MB 

This report is part of the RAND Corporation testimony series. RAND testimonies record testimony presented by RAND associates to federal, state, or local legislative committees; government-appointed commissions and panels; and private review and oversight bodies.

Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.

18 June 2019

Summer Book List 2019


Last Christmas we asked a group of senior leaders what books they would recommend a leader has on their Christmas list. Well Christmas is now far behind us. The cold is a distant memory and most of us are looking forward to relaxing in the sun over the summer. And if you are lucky enough to be relaxing with a book in your hand, what should that book be? For our summer leadership book list we have asked the same question we asked last year: “What book would you recommend to a leader, and why?” However, this summer we have asked a more diverse audience. From a Two Star officer, the Army Sergeant Major and a senior Civil Servant, to an innovative Captain and an anonymous Section Commander. We have even asked an Australian anthropologist.

Some of the books are about leadership, others are about war. Every book, whatever the subject, will give you an insight into the way leaders deal with stress, build teams and motivate their people. The newest book came out this year. The oldest is almost 2000 years old. We hope you enjoy them all. And let us know who you would like to get a recommendation from this Christmas, or which book you think they should have recommended.

Leadership: Lessons from the Presidents for Turbulent Times

Recommended by Air Vice-Marshal Chris Luck, former Commandant of the Defence Academy.

16 June 2019

New and Critical Materials

PDF file 1 MB 

This report is part of the RAND Corporation testimony series. RAND testimonies record testimony presented by RAND associates to federal, state, or local legislative committees; government-appointed commissions and panels; and private review and oversight bodies.

Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.

27 January 2019

Air Force Journal of Indo-Pacific Affairs, Spring 2019, v. 2, no. 1


o The Chinese Aircraft Carrier Program and Its Influence in the Chinese Naval Strategy

o Southeast Asian Hedging and Indo-Japanese Strategies for Regional Balance

o Artificial Intelligence in Weapons: The Moral Imperative for Minimally-Just Autonomy

o Air Intelligence at the Edge: Lessons of Fourteenth Air Force in World War II 

o In China’s Shadow: The Strategic Situation in the Western Pacific


16 December 2018

New Realities in Foreign Affairs: Diplomacy in the 21st Century


Modern diplomacy is currently experiencing fundamental changes at an unprecedented rate, which affect the very character of diplomacy as we know it. These changes also affect aspects of domestic and international politics that were once of no great concern to diplomacy. Technical develop­ments, mainly digitization, affect how the work of the diplomat is understood; the number of domestic and international actors whose activity implicates (or is a form of) diplomacy is increasing; the public is more sen­sitive to foreign policy issues and seeks to influence diplomacy through social media and other platforms; the way exchange between states, as well as the interchange between government and other domestic actors, pro­gresses is influencing diplomacy’s ability to act legitimately and effectively; and finally, diplomats themselves do not necessarily need the same attri­butes as they previously did. These trends, reflecting general societal devel­opments, need to be absorbed by diplomacy as part of state governance.

12 December 2018

JFK Special Warfare Center and School

Special Warfare, July-September 2018, v. 31, no. 3 

Special Operations Command South.
In Depth Q&A with Rear Admiral Collin P. Green, U.S. Navy.
Regional Threat Overview: Latin America and the Caribbean.
Measuring Indirect Effects Over Time.
SOTF-77: A Model for Component Support to Combatant Commands.
Integrated Campaigning: Countering Threat Networks in Latin America.
Optimization of the Information and Influence Competencies.
The Last Line of Defense: Latin America: Beyond Counter-Drug and Counter Transnational Organized Crime.
How SOCSOUTH Enablers Live by the 5th SOF Truth.
A Team Effort: Rapid Response and Proactive Theater Response in the Caribbean.
The People Business: Leveraging Interagency and Partner Nation Relationships to Shape Narratives in the Information Environment.
Changing Culture: Operational Adjustments to Match the Operating Environment.
Focus: Colombia.
Focus: El Salvador.
Focus: Panama.
Off the Range, Into the Jungle: Optimizing Special Forces in a Combined Operation.

11 December 2018

Marine Corps University Press

Marine Corps University Journal, Special Issue 2018 


o Gender Integration and the Military
o British and Soviet Women in the Military Campaign of 1939–45: A Comparative Review
o “Things Must be Bad at the Front”: Women in the Soviet Military during WWII
o Rumors, Lies, and Fake Radio Broadcasts: One Woman’s Pioneering Efforts in Psychological Warfare
o From WACs to Rangers: Women in the U.S. Military since World War II
o The Observatory for Equality between Women and Men in the Mexican Army and Air Force: Guardian of Gender Equality
o Gender Integration and Citizenship: A Civil-Military Perspective
o Opening Marine Infantry to Women: A Civil-Military Crisis?
o Guarding the Border, Crossing a Barrier: Women Trooper Integration in the Israel Border Police, 1995–98