14 January 2018

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building : Part - II

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building
Part - II

- Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)

Aid to Civil Authorities and Disaster Management 

Indian Army is the first responder in ant natural calamities in the country. Army is called out regularly for flood relief all over the country. Indian Army has removed bodies buried under the rubble of earthquakes at Latur and Dharchula and landslides at Kedar Nath and other places in the Kumaon Hills. Army coped with determination in the aftermath of the South East Asian Tsunami in December 2004. Our jawans have risked their lives in cyclonic storms in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to bring succour to the suffering countrymen. Army has often provided essential services during strikes, has taken medical aid to remote corners of the country, has braved epidemics and plagues. He has quelled communal disturbances and riots. In the past, it has not been uncommon to find the Country coming to a stop due to a strike in some vital sector of the economy or the other. Trade unions in the railways, oil sector, transportation sector etc. have held the Nation hostage bringing the economy to a grinding halt. In all such emergencies, it is the military with its limited resources which has come forward to run the essential services and keep the wheels of economy moving. 

Operation Sadbhavana. The Army continues to play a critical role in bringing peace to regions where misguided youth choose to take up arms against the nation. This onerous responsibility has been undertaken by the army with utmost responsibility and maturity. Not only have many areas been rid of violence and fear of terrorism, succour has also been provided by undertaking extensive public support programmes like Operation Sadbhavana and Operation Samaritan. From building of roads, schools, public health facilities, vocational facilities, schools, sporting facilities and provisioning essential supplies, the army has been at the forefront of nation building in these troubled areas. 

Border Roads Organisation (BRO). The army has also been at the forefront of helping build the country through developmental initiatives. Amongst some of the most important contributions to the task of nation building, has been the untiring efforts of the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) in connecting the far flung areas of the country with the national mainstream. Areas which were considered distant and desolate are very much a part of the network of roads created by BRO. Working in the most difficult and harshest of conditions, the efforts put in by these dedicated men of the BRO have linked the hearts of the people of the country through thousands of kilometers of roads paved and maintained despite life threatening conditions. Peering into the future, the task ahead is colossal and requires a great deal of focus, resources and disciplined manpower to execute this humongous task that shall shape the infrastructure in the remotest and inaccessible parts of the country. 

Territorial Army(TA). The Territorial Army has contributed immensely to the task of nation building through the years. These battalions have assisted in securing vital interests in threatened regions. They have undertaken re forestation initiatives and have transformed large swathes of land which had been ravaged by natural and man made disasters. The home and hearth battalions have been at the forefront of soldiering in some of the most sensitive areas of the country. They have not only fought against difficult military odds, but have also provided a helping hand to the local administration, helping bring peace and stability in their areas of responsibility. 

The concept of Ecological Task Force (ETF) was first initiated by the Indian government in 1980 to undertake ecological restoration work in terrains rendered difficult either due to remote location, severe degradation or risky law-and-order situations. The other important objective of this project was to promote and provide meaningful employment to local ex-servicemen in the Territorial Army. Set up in 1982, the Territorial Army’s Ecological Task Force (ETF) is the world’s first ecological battalion. From saving deforested hills from desertification to transforming abandoned mines into lush green forests, the ETF has done it all! 

The spectacular successes of the ETFs in the Shivalik hills and the Thar desert prompted the other State Governments to partner with the central government and establish similar battalions in other ecologically degraded parts of the country like Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Assam etc. At present, India has eight ETF battalions (of nearly 1,000 men each) are located at Dehradun, Shri Mohangarh, Delhi, Samba, Kufri, Pithoragarh, Sonitpur and Kokrajhar. 

In the last three decades, ETF battalions have planted and cared for over 6 crore saplings and covered more than 70000 hectares of land, with a 70-80% survival rate. This is a significant contribution, especially when this has been achieved in areas with inhospitable terrain, harsh weather and the ever-looming threat of insurgent attacks.At a time when military in the developed countries have just started taking an interest in climate change mitigation, the Indian Army has set an outstanding example for others to emulate. It’s time we acknowledged these unsung foot soldiers and their role in ensuring that our country remains clean and green. 

National Cadet Corps (NCC). A more visible manifestation of the army’s nation-building role is the National Cadet Corps. It is engaged in grooming the youth, imbibing in them the qualities of discipline, selfless service and the spirit of nationalism. All the ideals that shape our forces are instilled in the young minds to develop their character, through qualities like comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and ideals of selfless service. This shall shape the value system of the future generations and hence has a direct bearing on the moral quotient of the nation building effort. 

Ex-Serviceman (ESM). The ex-serviceman’s qualitative contribution to civilian life, by way of invigorating its culture and character and their quantitative contribution especially to rural economy is something which has not been assessed so far. But significant though this contribution is, it is only a very small part of the contribution they can make to national economy if their services are utilized in agriculture and industry in an organized manner. This highly disciplined and patriotic human resource should be utilised in the capacity building efforts of the nation in various spheres through a focussed approach to employable training and other vocational skillsets that can be leveraged for the nation building effort. There is also immense scope in deploying this manpower in playing an integral role in the harmonising of efforts of Government, NGOs and CSR activities towards improving the quantitative and qualitative deliverables at the ground level. 

The Indian Army, with at least 13 million troops, discharges some 50,000 trained soldiers back to the hinterland. These men bring with them a national outlook, skills that the army taught them, and the secular world view they have experienced during their stint in the forces. This resource if properly harnessed, can make a significant contribution to nation building. The benefit that the armed forces give to the community is the pool of disciplined, well-trained young men and women. Thousands of ex-servicemen have returned to their native villages and started entrepreneurial ventures leveraging their competencies. 

Defence Industrial Base. We need the best capabilities and latest technology for our Army. India started with nearly no capability of indigenised capacities and yet we were confronted with conflict at the outset of our journey as an independent country. As a country we created a capability through our Defence Public Sector Undertakings(DPSU) and Ordnance Factories. We have thirty nine Ordnance factories and nine DPSUs. The Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) brought about the scientific support. There are fifty two research labs carrying out R&D on weapon systems ranging from armaments, aeronautics, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, materials and life sciences. Permeation of technology is not constrained by ownership and spreads its reach to all areas of human endeavour. Spin off effect of this process towards many aspects of nation building has been immense. Most technologies that were designed for warfare have extensive non-military use. The Internet, nuclear power, space programmes, deep oceanic mapping and transcontinental communications are just some of the examples. Looking ahead the trends are obvious that the Defence Industrial base would be further strengthened with wider participation by the vibrant private sector enterprise of the nation.. Our indigenous efforts have indeed yielded results in increasing the nation’s self-reliance but there is a case to do much more by harmonising the efforts of all the stake holders. 

India’s DPSUs employ an approximate work force of 2,00,000. Ordnance Factories also employ huge number of people. 

India’s target to increase the contribution of manufacturing sector to 25% of GDP, would get a big boost with greater number of defence projects being given to indigenous defence industry under Buy (Indian- IDDM), “Make” and Buy and Make (India) categories. It is also estimated that it will give boost to employment opportunities with both direct and indirect jobs. In next five years, as per Boston Consulting group there is a scope of creation of 1 million jobs within next five years with approx 0.5 million indirect jobs. Nasscom Deloitte study on contrary suggests that in a high technology sector for every one direct job created in defence sector, there would be 4 x indirect jobs created in sectors supporting defence sector. 

The defence procurement and the offset policy is another example of how our defence expenditure can contribute to nation-building. The current defence budget has a procurement component of Rs54,800 crore, which will be used to purchase state-of-the-art equipment. Around 70% of this is in the form of imports. The procurement policy lays down the provision of “offsets”, which essentially mandates that the seller of the armament has to buy or provision up to 50% of the cost of the weapon platform from Indian manufacturers. This ensures that a sizeable percentage of money spent on defence procurement is ploughed back into the economy. The offset structure also incentivizes collaboration with Indian partners to indigenize substantial parts of the equipment to fulfil the offset obligation, thereby facilitating technology transfer into Indian industries. Global firms are expected to channelize up to $20 billion in 10 years into India. This creates very interesting opportunities. 

Our defence budget also consists of regular revenue expenditure in the form of salaries, allowances and sustenance costs of maintaining an army. Food has to be bought, roads have to be built, vehicles need to ply and the agricultural produce of several thousand villages goes to maintaining garrisons stationed all over the country. An entire ecosystem thrives on maintaining and mobilizing the defence forces. Cantonment towns are examples of cities which have been fuelled by defence establishments that literally created them.

Chief Of Defence Staff:To Be Or Not to Be

BHARAT KARNAD 

Referring here to the October 2016 note issued by MOD that equated the status of a 2-star rank officer of the armed services to that of Principal Director in MOD, with repercussions down the line. That this decision to thus downgrade Major Generals/Air Vice Marshals/Rear Admirals was taken by Manohar Parrikar’s well into his tenure as defence minister suggests he was not paying attention. Or, alternatively, was happy to be led by the nose by the ICS/IAS-wallahs who ever since 1947, after getting a reprieve from prime minister Nehru who once seriously considered dismantling the colonial-era ICS and starting anew, have relentlessly upped their relative status and benefits at the expense not just of the military services but also other, even technical, All India Services.

Afghanistan: Perpetual War Without Success or End

By Daniel L. Davis

Lost under the growing headlines related to the North Korean nuclear program, America’s permanent war in Afghanistan continues its aimless drift. Effectively hidden from public view, the war remorselessly chews up American service members and tens of billions of dollars in national treasure, while no longer contributing to U.S. security. The latest developments serve to deepen the futility. Gen. Joseph Votel, commander of the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), said the introduction of additional U.S. troops and more relaxed rules of engagement authorized by President Trump would help to “focus on offensive operations,” and help Afghan troops, “gain the initiative very quickly” as fighting enters 2018. One must wonder, however, how long Congress and the American people will continue believing these unrealistic, “victory is just around the corner” declarations from its senior commanders.

Changing Sponsors Won’t Solve Pakistan’s Problems

Islamabad has always sought outside support to pay for its foreign and defence policy, tying itself in knots to secure funding. A Pakistan that can fund itself would be better for both the country and its partners. Even before Donald Trump’s latest evisceration of Islamabad’s record as an ally, the US–Pakistan relationship was famously rocky. Previous US presidents have made similar threats – and as now, Pakistan has responded by threatening to cosy up further with China. Many in the country would welcome such a break, glad to be rid of what they see as a servile relationship with the US.

The New Pessimism of US Strategy towards China

By Tyler Jost 

For Tyler Jost, the Trump administration’s recently released National Security Strategy represents a tectonic shift in US foreign policy towards China. This is not just because the strategy strikes a markedly more confrontational and pessimistic tone towards Beijing, it’s also as it shifts the fundamental logic about why China poses a threat to the US. So will the new strategy produce meaningful results? For instance, could it help the US deter China from promoting its model of authoritarian governance? Jost has his doubts.

By denying river water data to us, Beijing is using the resource as a tool of coercive diplomacy



Brahma Chellaney 
To deflect attention from its continuing dam-building frenzy and its refusal to enter into a water-sharing treaty with any neighbour, China has bragged about its hydrological-data sharing accords. Yet it showed in 2017 that it can breach these accords at will. The denial of hydrological data to India actually underscores how China is using transboundary water as a tool of coercive diplomacy.

Finding A Path To A Post-Revolutionary Iran

by Matthew Bey

Almost four decades after the toppling of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, a revolutionary ideology continues to underpin the Iranian state. As the years have passed, the relevance of its governing philosophy risks being lost on the country's younger generations, and the internal and external challenges to its government continue to mount. The recent spate of demonstrations that quickly spread across the country highlighted one of the revolutionary state's largest shortcomings: It is a 40-year-old revolution that has not arrived at a sustainable economic model.

Russia’s Military Leadership Reflects on 2017

By Roger McDermott

As 2017 drew to a close, Russia’s political-military leadership staged various events and public discussions emphasizing some of the achievements of the year and outlining priorities for 2018. Few surprises came out of these reflections, with the overall defense priorities well established. Still, those meetings and President Vladimir Putin’s visit to the newly built Academy of the Strategic Rocket Forces in Balashikha, near Moscow, afforded opportunities to amplify the message that military modernization is progressing—as well as to remind various audiences of the potential dangers facing the Russian State. Indeed, progress was evident throughout the year in terms of the quantity and quality of the modernization, with the State Armaments Program to 2027 (Gosudarstvennaya Programma Vooruzheniya—GPV) being fine-tuned based on lessons from the conflicts in Ukraine and Syria (see EDM, April 25, 2017; December 12, 2017).

INTELLIGENCE, SECRECY, AND ACCOUNTABILITY: GETTING THE BALANCE WRONG FOR SIXTY YEARS

Arnold Isaacs

Few if any Central Intelligence Agency critics can match John Prados’s credentials or his credibility. A prolific author and long-time associate of the National Security Archive, Prados has spent many years pursuing declassification of CIA documents and then putting that material in the historical record. In The Ghosts of Langley, which follows several earlier works on CIA-related subjects, Prados revisits a series of troubling episodes spanning more than six decades of CIA history, from its clumsy and ineffective efforts to support resistance behind the Iron Curtain in the 1950s to the black prisons and torture scandals of the “war on terror” era.

Leadership Lessons From General George C. Marshall

By Michael J. Hennelly

Many people today don’t remember George Marshall, but in the middle of the 20th century he was inescapable. A five-star general who later won the Nobel Peace Prize, Marshall was once described by President Harry S. Truman as the greatest soldier in American history. Other world figures agreed, and after World War II, the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called Marshall the true organizer of Allied victory. After his retirement from public life, Marshall turned down many lucrative offers for his memoirs. In 1956, the historian Forrest Pogue began a thirty-year project of researching and writing a massive four-volume biography of Marshall. In the first volume (Education of a General, 1880-1939), Pogue provides a small anecdote from Marshall’s early life. This story serves as a diagnostic for one important aspect of leadership. Leaders are usually thought to be self-starters, and this story can serve any potential leader as a way of measuring their own level of individual initiative.

America's Most Pressing Threat? Climate Change

James Stavridis

When the newest U.S. National Security Strategy was released last month, many intelligence, military and foreign-policy professionals considered it a pleasant surprise. It hits most of the mainstream concerns facing the U.S.: the significant challenges we face from China, Russia, North Korea and Iran; the necessity of better homeland security against terrorist attacks; the importance of working with allies, partners and friends; and the need to determine sensible levels of defense spending. I called it “shockingly normal” in a But it misses the mark in one particularly worrisome area: the threats related to climate change and global warming, which were all but ignored. Early reports indicate that a similar report expected to soon be released by the Pentagon, the National Defense Strategy, will make the same error of omission.

Russia-Iran alliance cracks open options for Trump

Josh Cohen

Iran and Russia have made no secret of their mutual desire to sideline the United States in the Middle East. "Our cooperation can isolate America," Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei told Vladimir Putin during the Russian president's recent visit to Tehran. Mr Putin, for his part, has praised the Moscow-Tehran relationship as "very productive". Certainly the alliance has paid dividends in Syria, where the Moscow-Tehran military collaboration turned the tide of the war in favour of their mutual ally Bashar al-Assad and compelled the United States to abandon its goal of forcing Mr Assad from power. Nevertheless, while Washington should certainly be wary of the Russian-Iranian relationship, it is less a strategic alliance than a marriage of convenience -- and one whose cracks are already showing.

By 2040, Islam will be second largest religion in US: Study

According to the Pew Research Center, the reason for the burgeoning Muslim population was twofold — a high rate of immigration and a high fertility rate. Muslims are on course to become the second largest religious group in the US by 2040, a study by Pew Research Center has suggested. Analysing studies they conducted in 2007, 2011 and 2017 with annual data from US Census, Pew concluded that the Muslim population is growing at an accelerated rate and will rise from an estimated 3.45 million in 2017 to an estimated 8.1 million in 2050, CNN reported.

Trump’s New Right Wing Ambassador to the Netherlands Is Proving to Be An Embarrassment

U.S. President Donald Trump’s new ambassador to the Netherlands, who two years ago said Muslim migrants had sown chaos in the country, cut short questions seeking clarification of those remarks in his first meeting with its media on Wednesday. Pete Hoekstra, a former Republican congressman for Michigan, was repeatedly asked about the comments, made at an event sponsored by the right-wing David Horowitz Freedom Center. The Islamic movement is now gotten to a point where they have put Europe into chaos,” Hoekstra had said at the November 2015 gathering, during a recorded panel discussion about migration from Muslim states. “Chaos in the Netherlands - there are cars being burned. There are politicians that are being burned and, yes, there are no-go zones in the Netherlands.”

Trump's National Security Strategy: 10 Big Priorities

By Colin Dueck

First time I met with President Trump, we disagreed on three things in my first 40 minutes with him. This is not a man who’s immune to being persuaded if he thinks you’ve got an argument.” - Secretary of Defense James Mattis, August 2017 As we enter a second year of U.S. foreign policy under the current administration, sometimes it’s hard to separate the signal from the noise. Is there a guide for the perplexed? The new National Security Strategy (NSS), designed to clarify the administration’s foreign-policy concerns and objectives, may be one useful starting point. Its release received largely positive reviews. Even many of the administration’s opponents conceded that national security adviser H. R. McMaster and his staff—led in this instance by Nadia Schadlow, deputy assistant to the president for national security strategy—did good work in crafting a serious and perceptive document ahead of schedule.

In space and cyber, China is closing in on the United States

by Sandra Erwin

It should be no surprise that China is moving to challenge the United States for dominance in space, cyber, artificial intelligence and other key technologies that have wide national security applications. But the question that is still being debated is whether the United States is taking this threat seriously. This may not be a Sputnik moment, but the United States could soon be unpleasantly surprised as China continues to shore up its domestic capacity to produce high-end weapons, satellites and encryption technologies, a panel of analysts told the House Armed Services emerging threats and capabilities subcommittee.

Reliance Jio plans cryptocurrency JioCoin: Report


At a time, when cryptocurrency is the latest rage in the financial world, it seems like Reliance Jio is the latest to join the bandwagon. According to aLiveMint report, Mukesh Ambani's Jio is planning its own cryptocurrency called JioCoin.  The report claims that Mukesh Ambani's elder son Akash is leading the project. The primary goal is to work on blockchain technology. Blockchain is one of the latest tech of storing data in a secured encrypted form.

How secure is your printer from cyber attacks?

Mathew Thomas, HP Inc.

Today, cybercrime has grown to become a financially driven industry, costing organizations globally a whopping $445 billion.In the last year, large data breaches have driven the demand for heavily reliable security devices to the highest point. In fact, no organization is exceptionally immune to cyberattacks, and as digital technology rapidly transforms, security faces a tough time in keeping up. A study conducted by PwC in 2016 indicated that cybercrime remains to be the second most reported economic crime. Acknowledging this significant issue is a first step towards protecting an organization’s security landscape.

The next challenge for Navy cyber teams? Keeping skills sharp

By: Amber Corrin  

Sailors assigned to Navy Cyber Defense Operations Command monitor, analyze, detect and respond to unauthorized activity within U.S. Navy information systems and computer networks. NCDOC is responsible for around the clock protection of the Navy's computer networks, with more than 700,000 users worldwide.  In November, the Navy’s Cyber Mission Force teams reached a key staffing milestone nearly a year ahead of schedule. The next step? Ensuring those teams sustain a high degree of readiness that allows them to deploy anywhere, anytime.

Infographic Of The Day: The Future Of Shipping Is Green And Autonomous


Ships often get overlooked when it comes to advances in transportation technology. How will shipping change in the coming years, and what trends can we look to for guidance on the future of shipping?

Where Hypersonic Weapons Fit in the Future of War

By George Friedman
Source Link

The South China Morning Post published an article on Jan. 7 that claimed China was “in the lead” of the development of hypersonic weapons technology. The article points out an important evolution in modern warfare, one that could have a major effect on how wars are fought. It is one of the rare technical matters that are actually strategically important.

War: A Matter of Math

In laymen’s terms, a hypersonic missile is a missile that can travel extremely fast. It is what’s known as an air-breathing weapon, which differs from an intercontinental ballistic missile in that it is externally fueled. It is the descendent of early cruise missiles such as the German V-1 and the U.S. Matador. These forebears were powered by jet engines and could fly to a target (occasionally) without a pilot. Later subsonic cruise missiles could go faster, powered as they were by ramjets, which compress incoming air and mix it with fuel to increase speed.

BLUE HAIR IN THE GRAY ZONE

JACQUELYN SCHNEIDER

Every morning on my way to get coffee, I walk through the Future Forces Gallery, a new addition to the Naval War College. The space is filled with models of unmanned systems, robots, and articles about the future of unmanned technology. A PowerPoint deck plays in the background, detailing the autonomous systems of the future. And every morning, it makes me angry. In a room filled with “future forces” there are no actual forces; at least, not human forces. Just machines, with no one maintaining, operating, or leading them.

Paladin: What's Right and Wrong With Army Modernization

By Daniel Gouré

In 1963, the U.S. Army introduced the M109A1 155mm turreted self-propelled howitzer (SPH), called the Paladin. An artillery piece that could keep up with mobile armored formations and survive counterbattery fire was essential to the Army’s mission of deterring high-end conventional conflict with the Soviet Union. The Paladin has seen service in every American conflict from the Vietnam War to the present. It is currently the primary fire support system for the Army’s Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs). Also, it is also in service in approximately twenty other countries.

Army to hold tactical network industry day

By: Mark Pomerleau 

Soldiers from 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division drive a vehicle equipped with Warfighter Information Network-Tactical Increment 2 during the Army’s Network Integration Evaluation 13.1 on Nov. 9, 2012. (Katie Cain/Network Integration Evaluation)  The Army is holding its first industry day focused on its tactical network as part of a new Army-wide construct to help the service modernize and improve its systems procurement process. The Army announced the establishment of a new Modernization Command with cross-functional teams that align with the service’s six modernization priorities: Long-Range Precision Fires, next-generation combat vehicle, Future Vertical Lift, the network, air-and-missile defense, and soldier lethality.

Army Boosts Air Defense, Key To Joint & Allied Fight

By ROBBIN LAIRD and ED TIMPERLAKE
The shift from low-intensity land wars and the concepts of operations associated with them to getting ready for higher tempo and higher intensity operations are key to the transformation of U.S. and allied forces. The challenge facing the liberal democracies was well put in a recent presentation by a senior Finnish defense official: “The timeline for early warning is shorter; the threshold for the use of force is lower.”

The World According to H.R. McMaster

BY URI FRIEDMAN

Why is he so worried about North Korea? 

Why is H.R. McMaster so alarmed by North Korea? Why does Donald Trump’s national-security adviser insist—more vigorously than any administration official except the president himself—that Kim Jong Un must be denied the capability to place a nuclear warhead on a missile that can reach the United States, even if this requires initiating a military conflict with the North that could devolve into a cataclysmic war?

13 January 2018

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building : Part - I

The Indian Army’s Role in Nation Building
Part - I

- Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)
Introduction

"The Mauryan soldier does not himself the Royal treasuries enrich nor does he the Royal granaries fill… The soldier only and merely ensures that… He is thus the very basis and silent, barely visible cornerstone of our fame, culture, physical well-being and prosperity; in short, of the entire nation building activity.”  - Chanakya, to the King of Magadh.

The Concept of Nation Building was originally used by American political scientists after World War II to describe the need for integration of the state and society as an inescapable step for national growth. Nation building referred to the efforts of newly independent nations, notably the nations of Asia and Africa, to reshape territories that had been carved out by colonial powers or Empires without regard to ethnic, religious, or other boundaries. These reformed states later on became viable and coherent national entities because of their nation building efforts aimed at establishing a national identity for themselves. This was needed to be deliberately constructed by moulding different ethnic groups into a nation, especially since in many newly established states colonial practices of divide and rule had resulted in ethnically heterogeneous populations. 

Nation states are political units in an international system and they represent the citizens aspiration to be grouped in a single political unit that would in turn act as an instrument to achieve, life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. So the process of Nation Building by any nation aims at the unification of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run. 

The 21st century looks towards security, justice, economic development and a democratic polity as the pillars of nation building. Security comes first in the pecking order because the other three pillars function effectively only if the security threshold on the nation, both internal and external, remains intact. This in turn facilitates smooth functioning of democracy and brings in its wake social justice and economic development.

In India, democracy has managed to hold and the constitution as initially introduced continues to be sacrosanct. This has been facilitated, by no small measure, by the armed forces who have maintained, most scrupulously, the ideals enshrined in the constitution and have made a great contribution towards nourishment of democracy in the nation. The strength of the armed forces lies in their high standards of discipline and morale supported by a secular outlook and an apolitical demeanour. They have, in the highest spirit of nationalism, stepped forward to face all challenges posed to the nation and have been a pillar of support to the people who look up to them in times of crisis. The capability of the nation to maintain its most significant pillar of security, has contributed significantly to the progress that it has recorded post independence. The Army with their ingrained spirit of Nationhood can certainly play a significant role in fostering the spirit of ‘inclusive growth’ as enunciated by Government. The Army have been a symbol of unity and secularism through turbulent times faced by the country and have fostered the spirit of One-India, like no other organ of the state. Be it the sectarian clashes, terrorism or insurgency, the Army have maintained their ethos; an ethos that has proved to be a strong fabric for National Integration. 

The Indian army has always devoted itself to being able to successfully carry out any of the roles that the elected government has allotted to it. The prime and major role is clear - defend the nation against its potential enemies. This per se is not a nation building function but it is the absolute pre requisite for nation building. To fulfill this primary role, the requirement is that the army are in readiness to defend the nation at all times. In a rapidly changing security matrix this role of the army needs to be further strengthened. 

Stitching the Nation Together

The British followed the path of least resistance by leaving the status of 600 odd princely states within the union ambiguous and unsettled while announcing India’s Independence. It required the vision of India’s first Home Minister Sardar Patel to make these states accede to the Indian Union and turn the country into one cohesive whole. He used the soft power of the nascent state to request, persuade and cajole these states to become part of India. However, the benign presence of Indian Army was always there in the background as a symbol of hard power. Sardar Patel did not hesitate to use hard power of the Indian Army to those couple of states which did not see the logic and refused to accede to Indian Union. Indian Army spearheaded the effort to integrate Junagadh (1947), Hyderabad (Operation Polo, 1948), Goa (Operation Vijay, 1961) and Sikkim (1975) with the Indian Union. Army participated in the interventions in the Maldives and Sri Lanka at the behest of the governments of these countries. Without the intervention of Indian Army the geography of the country would have been totally different. Army’s role in nation building has been outstanding.

Indian Army has participated in peace-keeping operations and earned the gratitude of beleaguered people from Korea to the Congo, from Kampuchea to Bosnia-Herzegovina.

it was the Indian Army on which the nation relied to bring in a semblance of order in the mayhem and massacres of hundreds of thousands that took place during mass scale migration of people in Punjab and Bengal post the announcement of the Radcliffe award on partition of the country. The invasion of J&K by Pakistan aided, abetted and supported by razakars in 1947-48 was thwarted by the Indian Army despite a last minute entry when the attackers were knocking at the gates of Srinagar. Similar attempts by Pakistan in 1965, 1971 and 1999 met with the same fate, thanks to the heroic efforts of the Indian military. In fact, ignominious dismemberment of Pakistan and surrender of 90,000-93,000 Pakistani officers and men in 1971 added a glorious chapter to the history of the Indian Army and gave the Country something to be proud of. All these victories have been achieved by the military in service of the Nation through supreme sacrifices and at a tremendous cost to life and material itself. 

Counter Insurgency Operations

Insurgencies in different parts of the Country have been a regular feature since the time we became Independent in 1947. Separatism, communalism, sectarianism, naxalism and Left Wing Extremism have been raising their ugly heads from time to time, striking at the roots of the very unity of the Country. Externally abetted proxy wars like the current one in J&K are a constant attempt to undermine the integrity of the Country. Despite heavy odds, it is the Indian military which has kept the concept of One India alive. In tackling these insurgencies and fighting proxy wars, it has suffered more casualties than it did during the entire Second World War. In fact, the Indian state has always used the Army as an instrument of last resort when all other means have failed. It is to the credit of the Army that it has invariably delivered in all difficult situations. Our countrymen recognise this contribution and therefore have tremendous respect and admiration for the military. Not many countries can boast of many successful counter insurgency operations like India have in Mizoram and other North Eastern states and Punjab. Some other operations are well under control.

Gwadar: challenged strategic asset

BY Tim Willasey-Wilsey

Gwadar has lain in relative obscurity since 1958 when Oman sold it to Pakistan. It was only 50 years later that the Chinese ‘rediscovered’ it. Pakistan and China have much to learn from the British experience of this strategic asset In Islamabad last month all talk was of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and of Gwadar. Pakistan views the project as a form of national salvation following all the setbacks of recent years; the problems with power outages (“load-shedding”), the challenges of extremism, the tensions with Afghanistan, and above all, the rapid erosion of trust in its relationship with the United States. The widespread belief is that China, the “all-weather friend”, has come to the rescue with a plan of breathtaking proportions and ambition.

Pakistan halts intelligence cooperation with US, but US embassy denies knowledge

Ian Allen

Pakistan said on Tuesday that it had suspended military and intelligence cooperation with the United States in the wake of Washington’s decision to stop security assistance to Pakistan. On Tuesday, Pakistan’s Minister of Defense, Khurram Dastgir Khan, said that his country had terminated all cooperation with the US in the areas of defense and intelligence. He said that the move was a response to the announcement by US President Donald Trump last week that Washington would stop providing security assistance to Pakistan. American officials stated that the change in policy took place because Pakistan had allegedly deceived America in the global war on terrorism. On Thursday last week, the President Trump accused the Pakistani government of having given the US “nothing but lies and deceit”. Trump’s accusation was followed by an official statement by the Pentagon, which said that Pakistan should cease to provide “sanctuaries in its territory for Taliban and Haqqani network leaders and operatives”.

THE HAQQANI NETWORK: ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST LETHAL TERROR GROUPS

BY ANN M. SIMMONS

(Tribune News Service) - When the Trump administration announced this week it was suspending military aid to Pakistan until the country takes more aggressive action against terrorist organizations that have targeted Americans, one of the groups it named was the Haqqani network. Compared to other extremist groups, it is unfamiliar to many people in the US. Jalaluddin Haqqani was an Afghan warlord and a leader of the insurgency against Soviet forces in Afghanistan in the 1980s, when he formed his Sunni Islamist militant organization, which the US government did not designate as a foreign terrorist organization until 2012.

Trump's Flawed Pakistan Policy Why Islamabad Is Unlikely to Change

By Shuja Nawaz

On January 4, the United States announced the suspension of nearly all security-related assistance to Pakistan until Islamabad could prove its commitment to fighting terrorism and cut its ties with militant groups such as the Taliban. This decision came just days after U.S. President Donald Trump had accused Pakistan, on Twitter, of giving “safe haven to the terrorists we hunt in Afghanistan.” Pakistani leaders responded with a familiar refrain, claiming to have moved against all militant groups without distinction and pointing to the enormous costs in terms of money (over $120 billion) and lives (nearly 80,000 civilian and military dead) sustained by Pakistan in the fight against terrorism since 2001.

Trump's threat falls flat on Pakistani generals


'If push comes to shove, Pakistan does have the capability to make it difficult for the US and NATO forces to make even a withdrawal of troops out of Afghanistan in orderly fashion,' says Ambassador M K Bhadrakumar. A week after US President Donald J Trump's tweet on New Year Day, Pakistan is sitting tight.A Pakistan foreign ministry statement in Islamabad on Saturday, January 6, politely and firmly told the Trump administration that 'arbitrary deadlines, unilateral pronouncements and shifting goal posts are counterproductive.' The implicit warning is obvious. Having said that, lines of communication remain open.

Trump's Flawed Pakistan Policy Why Islamabad Is Unlikely to Change

By Shuja Nawaz

On January 4, the United States announced the suspension of nearly all security-related assistance to Pakistan until Islamabad could prove its commitment to fighting terrorism and cut its ties with militant groups such as the Taliban. This decision came just days after U.S. President Donald Trump had accused Pakistan, on Twitter, of giving “safe haven to the terrorists we hunt in Afghanistan.” Pakistani leaders responded with a familiar refrain, claiming to have moved against all militant groups without distinction and pointing to the enormous costs in terms of money (over $120 billion) and lives (nearly 80,000 civilian and military dead) sustained by Pakistan in the fight against terrorism since 2001.

U.S. wants 'decisive action' against terrorism, Pentagon says of Pakistan

By James LaPorta 

The statement follows suspension of delivery of security funds and military equipment based on U.S. officials lack of satisfaction with Pakistani leaders' efforts against terror groups.President Donald Trump departs the White House on January 5, 2018 for a weekend trip to Camp David where he will met with Republican leadership. Jan. 9 (UPI) -- The Pentagon has clarified what the United States expects of Pakistan after suspending the delivery of security funds and military equipment, and what needs to happen for delivery of both to start back up.

NEW CHINESE MISSILES COULD ATTACK U.S. MILITARY BASE OR JAPAN

BY ROBERT VALENCIA

The Chinese military has recently tested short- and medium-range missiles that could put a U.S. military base or Japan in harm’s way, according to local reports. The People’s Liberation Army Daily, the official newspaper of China’s armed forces, revealed images and footage of missiles that appeared to be either DF-11 or DF-16, which could travel between 373 and nearly 625 miles. Although it did not specifically mention where or when the test was conducted, the publication pointed out that it was carried out in several locations, the South China Morning Postreported Tuesday.

Iran's Regime at War With Itself

By Kamran Bokhari

Public agitation in Iran has many wondering about the fate of the almost 40-year Islamic republic. As evident from the way in which the latest wave of protests has been contained, popular unrest is unlikely to bring down Iran’s clerical regime. That said, the demonstrations underscore a political economic problem in the Shiite Islamist state. Before it can truly address its economic problems, it needs to sort out the war that the regime is having with itself.

Mossad Chief: Israel Has Eyes, Ears and ‘Even More’ in Iran

Mossad Chief: Israel Has Eyes, Ears and ‘Even More’ in Iran

Mossad chief Yossi Cohen said Tuesday in a rare public appearance that Israel “has eyes, ears and even more” in Iran. Speaking at a Finance Ministry conference, Cohen addressed the ongoing protests in Iran, saying that Iranian civilians are protesting the Islamic Republic’s current economic woes “because despite high expectations from the popular [President Hassan] Rohani, he has not managed in the eyes of a large part of the population to improve the economic situation.” Cohen added that “this reality is pushing people out into the streets, but one must temper expectations. I would like to see a revolution, but the protesters are faced with opposing forces. Meanwhile, we are seeing that Iran is spending more and more on security in order to push its aspirations of spreading influence throughout the Middle East.”

US to loosen nuclear weapons constraints and develop more 'usable' warheads

Julian Borger

Control centre Norad ( Cheyenne Mountain ) near Colorado Springs. The new nuclear policy is significantly more hawkish that the posture adopted by the Obama administration. The Trump administration plans to loosen constraints on the use of nuclear weapons and develop a new low-yield nuclear warhead for US Trident missiles, according to a former official who has seen the most recent draft of a policy review. Jon Wolfsthal, who was special assistant to Barack Obama on arms control and nonproliferation, said the new nuclear posture review prepared by the Pentagon, envisages a modified version of the Trident D5 submarine-launched missiles with only part of its normal warhead, with the intention of deterring Russia from using tactical warheads in a conflict in Eastern Europe.

America v. North Korea: The real-life Clone Wars


Things have gotten so weird in America and around the world that we are actually now living in the Star Wars Prequels. The main event in the prequels was the Clone Wars, which was fought between the Galactic Republic and the Confederacy of Independent Systems—also known as the Separatists. Chancellor Palpatine—secretly the Dark Lord of the Sith—manipulated both sides into a conflict that wore the Galaxy down to its core. Palpatine headed the Republic, while his apprentice Count Dooku headed the Separatists, and after three years of war, the Galaxy was shattered. Palpatine used the end of the war to combine the entire Galaxy—including the Separatists—into a new empire that he could rule for life.

Russia uses missiles and cyber warfare to fight off 'swarm of drones' attacking military bases in Syria



The Russian military says it has fought an attack by a swarm of drones launched by jihadists against its bases in Syria. Thirteen attack drones were launched against the Khmeimim air base and a naval facility in the city of Tartus on Syria’s western coast, the Russian defence ministry said.  Russian forces shot down seven of the drones with anti-aircraft missiles while the other six were hacked by a cyberware unit and taken under Russian control, the ministry said. No damage or casualties at the two military bases were reported. 

North Korean nuclear capabilities, 2018

Hans M. Kristensen, Robert S. Norris

The authors cautiously estimate that North Korea may have produced enough fissile material to build between 30 and 60 nuclear weapons, and that it might possibly have assembled 10 to 20. Although North Korea is thought to have the capability to develop an operationally functioning re-entry vehicle to deliver an operational nuclear warhead, there is some uncertainty about whether it has demonstrated that it has succeeded in doing so. Nonetheless, North Korea’s nuclear weapons program has made considerable progress over the years, including a wide variety of ballistic and powerful nuclear tests. Presumably, if it hasn't happened already, it is only a matter of time before Pyongyang’s nuclear arsenal can be considered fully functioning. 

How the Pentagon Should Deter Cyber Attacks

By Christopher Paul , Rand Waltzman

The most important lesson from Russia’s involvement in the 2016 presidential election may be this: foreign hackers and propagandists are not afraid to launch attacks against the United States in and through cyberspace that they would not dare risk in a real theater of war. So as cyber aggression gets worse and more brazen every year, it’s crucial that the Department of Defense figures out how to deter foreign actors in cyberspace as effectively as in nuclear and conventional warfare. The Pentagon can take five steps to better deter foreign cyber attacks.

HASC SUBCOMMITTEE OPENING REMARKS: “CHINA’S PURSUIT OF EMERGING & EXPONENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES”


WASHINGTON – Today, Rep. Elise Stefanik (R-NY), Chairwoman of the House Armed Services Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, made the following remarks, as prepared for delivery, on the Subcommittee’s hearing titled “China’s Pursuit of Emerging and Exponential Technologies .” For testimony and to watch the hearing click here“I would like to welcome everyone to our first Subcommittee event for 2018. Today we will examine China’s Pursuit of Emerging and Exponential Technologies and the resultant impact on U.S. national security.

Why relations between Slovenia and Croatia are all at sea

by T.J.

COUNTRIES are supposed to sort out border disputes before they join the European Union (EU). Slovenia and Croatia did not and that failure has returned to haunt them. Since December 29th hackles in the northern Adriatic have risen. Tiny police launches are puttering about menacingly on the Bay of Piran, where the two countries are disputing the position of their shared maritime frontier. Nationalists on both sides have been demanding that not an inch should be ceded. The police boats could conceivably start ramming each other. Whatever they do, the dispute serves as a reminder that EU membership offers no guarantee that perfectly resolvable border arguments will be sorted out sensibly. After all, these are not the Golan Heights.

FBI chief calls unbreakable encryption ‘urgent public safety issue’

FBI chief calls unbreakable encryption ‘urgent public safety issue’ 

NEW YORK (Reuters) - The inability of law enforcement authorities to access data from electronic devices due to powerful encryption is an “urgent public safety issue,” FBI Director Christopher Wray said on Tuesday as he sought to renew a contentious debate over privacy and security. The Federal Bureau of Investigation was unable to access data from nearly 7,800 devices in the fiscal year that ended Sept. 30 with technical tools despite possessing proper legal authority to pry them open, a growing figure that impacts every area of the agency’s work, Wray said during a speech at a cyber security conference in New York. The FBI has been unable to access data in more than half of the devices that it tried to unlock due to encryption, Wray added.

Face facts. The west that won the cold war no longer exists

Rafael Behr

Finnish TV and toilet paper did as much to undermine the USSR as the nuclear deterrent, an Estonian friend once explained to me. He grew up in Tallinn, under Kremlin rule but within antenna range of American soaps broadcast from Helsinki. What Dallas did for eyes that craved glamour, a smuggled supply of soft tissue did for bums rubbed raw by Soviet-issue bog roll. The Balts had too much exposure to what they were missing to be reconciled to the privations of communism.

Eliminating ICBMs—as part of a 21st-century deterrence strategy

Brent J. Talbot

The United States, if it follows through on plans to modernize all three legs of its nuclear triad, would perpetuate a Cold War deterrence structure inappropriate to contemporary threats. The Cold War nuclear triad may have been appropriate for deterring nuclear aggression by the Soviet Union, but today the United States must prepare to deter all nuclear powers, especially rogue states such as North Korea. Establishing strategic deterrence for the 21st century will require, in addition to maintaining an appropriately structured nuclear force, focusing on missile defense, intelligence, and conventional long-range strike capabilities – as well as on alliances, partnerships, and institutions at all levels. Intercontinental ballistic missiles have become unnecessary. They are less accurate than submarine-launched ballistic missiles. They are easier for adversaries to target. And because they can plausibly be used only against Russia, they do little to deter prospective nuclear rogue actors. Intercontinental ballistic missiles should be phased out of the US nuclear arsenal beginning no later than 2030. 

DoD quietly reorganizes Cyber Command

By: Mark Pomerleau 

U.S. Cyber Command has quietly reorganized its hierarchy to include a second deputy, a three-star general who reports to the commander. The move comes after President Donald Trump, in accordance with congressional mandate, directed Cyber Command to elevate to a full unified combatant command out from under Strategic Command. It also takes place as the agency prepares for a new commander with the expected retirement of Adm. Michael Rogers this spring.

What’s Blowing Up the Bitcoin Bubble?


Investors and speculators are biting into bitcoin — in a big way. The price of the cryptocurrency surged by nearly 1,900% in 2017, to an average high of $19,499 on December 15 across major bitcoin exchanges, before plunging down to just under $14,000 by year’s end, according to blockchain.info. The ascent is striking especially since bitcoin emerged just eight years ago, the creation of a mysterious person or group of people named Satoshi Nakamoto. In 2009, bitcoin was worth zero.

The role of effects, saliencies and norms in US Cyberwar doctrine

Henry Farrell Charles L. Glaser

The US approach to cybersecurity implicitly rests on an effects-based logic. That is, it presumes that the key question determining how the US and others will respond to attacks is what effects they have. Whether the effects come about as a result of cyber means or kinetic means is largely irrelevant. In this article, we explore this logic further, focusing on the question of when the US should deploy cyber responses and when kinetic. We find that under a simple effects-based logic, kinetic responses will often be more effective than cyber responses, although we explain that cyber attacks that 'leave something to chance’ may be an effective deterrent under some circumstances. We next develop a richer understandings of actors' expectations by employing the concepts of focal points and saliencies. In this framework, kinetic responses may be considered too escalatory, and therefore less attractive under many circumstances. If there are 'focal points' emerging, under which cyber attacks are seen as qualitatively distinct from kinetic attacks, then crossing a saliency may appear escalatory, even if the actual effects of the kinetic and cyber attackes are identifical. Finally, we examine nascent norms around cyber, suggesting that the US may wish to consider promoting a norm against large scale attacks on civilian infrastructure, and evaluating the prospects for a norm against cyber attacks on nuclear command and control systems. 

IS ESTONIA’S APPROACH TO CYBER DEFENSE FEASIBLE IN THE UNITED STATES?

MONICA M. RUIZ

White House cyber-security coordinator Rob Joyce warned in August that the United States is lacking 300,000 cyber-security experts needed to defend the country. His warning is all the more alarming given ongoing and increasingly sophisticated threats in cyberspace — in addition to resource and talent constraints in the public sector, poor cyber habits and awareness, lack of cooperation between government agencies, and limited coordination frameworks for existing volunteers.